The Taba Model

The Taba Model is simplistic, yet complete. If offers five steps to developing curriculum:
a. creating the units of work to be studied
b. testing these units with students
c. adapting units as necessary after the testing
d. creating a framework to test to ensure that all material is covered in a clear and complete manner
e. putting the unit of study into practice, while always creating new units to use in the classroom.

This model starts with the curriculum and the teacher’s view of what should be taught how and then tests it on students before declaring it effective. This model is very true to ISLLC 2. The justification for this is in the idea behind the teacher creating a welcoming and open environment (2.1a, 2.3b) that lets everyone feel like a positive team member and gives the best possible “learn by doing” approach to a child’s education. This model also represents the ideas behind ISLLC 1.2b – using data based strategies and strategic planning processes to make decisions on what is best in the classroom.

The Tyler Model

This model is a little more complex than the Taba Model, but has a similar design.
a. First, the material or curriculum that needs to be covered is selected based on three sources: students, society, and subject matter.
  • Student- The needs of the student are examined—educational, social, occupational, psychological, and recreational. Data is collected using teacher observations, interviews with students, interviews with parents, etc. A set of potential objectives is identified.
  • Society- An analysis of the local community and national society is the next step in creating objectives. This is possible because here the developers are to develop a way of dividing life into categories: health, family, recreation, vocation, religion, consumption, and civic roles.
  • Subject Matter- The developer must look at the subjects that are in question to be taught and create objectives specific to the subject.

b. Then, the teacher creates some tentative (they will be changed later) generalized objectives for the learning. In this next step, Tyler’s Model differs from Taba’s because it asks the person creating the curriculum to “screen” the information based on their own philosophy of education and psychology of learning. This step forces teachers to think about their own findings about what is educationally sound so that the learning can fit these parameters.

c. Lastly, once all of these things have been considered, Tyler’s Model ends with creating more precise instructional objectives based on the general statements that were created earlier in the process.

Tyler’s Model fits soundly with ISLLC 6. This is an appropriate correlation because this model, unlike Taba’s, is concerned with individual perceptions (6.1) and the sources of education that are provided from society (6.2a, 6.3). It could be argued that this model also represents ISLLC 4.2 because it is asking the curriculum developer to respond to the needs of the community.

The Oliva Model

According to Oliva, a model curriculum should be simple, comprehensive and systematic.The Oliva Curriculum development model is composed of 12 components, namely:

a. Component 1: Philosophical formulation, target, mission and vision of the institution
b. Component 2: Analysis of the needs of the community where the school is located
c. Components 3 and 4: General purpose and special purpose curriculum
d. Component 5: Organizing the design and implement curriculum
e. Component 6 and 7: Describe the curriculum in the form of the formulation of general objectives and specific learning
f. Component 8: Define the learning strategy
g. Component 9: Preliminary studies on possible strategies or assessment techniques to be used
h. Component 10: Implement the learning strategy
i. Components 11 and 12: Evaluation of learning and curriculum evaluation

To make the Oliva Model more simplistic, it can be set forth in 17 specific steps:

1. Specify the needs of the students in general.
2. Specify the needs of society.
3. Write a statement of philosophy and aims of education.
4. Specify the needs of students in your school.
5. Specify the needs of the particular community.
6. Specify the needs of the subject matter.
7. Specify the curriculum goals of your school.
8. Specify the curriculum objectives of your school.
9. Organize and implement the curriculum.
10. Specify instructional goals.
11. Specify instructional objectives.
12. Specify instructional strategies.
13. Begin selection of evaluation techniques.
14. Implement instructional strategies.
15. Make final selection of evaluation techniques.
16. Evaluate instruction and modify instructional components.
17. Evaluate the curriculum and modify curricular components.

Oliva's model fits well with ISLLC 2. The importance of evaluating the curriculum and instruction making the necessary modifications relates directly to 2.2a and 2.2b

Excerpted from:

The Saylor, Alexander and Lewis Model (Oliva, 2008)

a. The curriculum planner must begin by setting educational goals and specific objectives that they wish to accomplish.
1. Saylor, Alexander and Lewis classified sets of broad goals into four domains under which learning experiences may take place: personal development, social competence, continued learning skills, and specialization.

b. Once the learning goals, objectives and domains have been established, the planners can then move into the process of planning the curriculum.

c. The first step, curriculum designing, is made by the curriculum planning groups. Here, the curriculum workers decide on the appropriate learning opportunities for each domain and how and when these opportunities will be made available.

d. After the designs have been created, curriculum implementation begins. Teachers select the methods through which the curriculum will be related to the learner. Teachers identify the specific instructional objectives before selecting the strategies to implement.

e. FInally, teachers and curriculum planners evaluate the curriculum. They evaluate the total educational program and the evaluation program itself during this step of the process. This process allows educators to determine whether or not the goals and learning objectives have been met.

ISLLC 2.2b best fits this model as it states that candidates have the ability to make recommendations regarding the design, implementation and evaluation of a curriculum that fully accommodates learners’ diverse needs. ISLLC 2.3a addresses assisting school personnel in understanding and applying best practices for student learning.